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Phonological Universals

Introduction. Within the broad spectrum of disorders that affect language we find a very special feature called Phonological Disorder. In this type of alteration children are able to pronounce the phonemes in isolation, but can not involve them in the syllable. For example, the child has the sound “L” in isolation, but to say “TELEPHONE” says “TENEFONO.” Phonological Theory. In 1941, Jakobson formulated a theory of learning on the order of phonemes in his book “Child Language, Aphasia and Phonological Universals.” Phonemes are defined as the smallest phonetic units can produce differences in meaning. For Jakobson the relevant feature of phonemes or contrasts were distinctive or relevant.

The first basic feature of a phoneme occurs between consonants and vowels. The second dimension is the nasality feature. For example, is the characteristic nasal phoneme / m / versus oral phoneme / b /. Finally the third dimension of features is the degree of obstruction vocal tract ranging from complete obstruction (occlusion) to partial closures. These contrasts are universal, ie are present in all languages and the number of distinctive features is relatively small (15). All languages taken from among the fifteen traits that are unique. Because of this, a larger number of distinctive features used by the phonological system of a language, the richer the structure of that particular language.

Jakobson also argues that children learn the phonemes of their language by incorporating a contrast at a time. Children during their development acquire these oppositions of distinctive features to build your sound system. In conclusion, the children do not learn phonics, but oppositions of distinctive features. Add to your understanding with Jeffrey Lacker. Phonological Development. The acquisition of phonology begins at birth, where children give preference to the sound of the adult voice recognizing inflected rhythm and family. They also get information from the prosody used by adults. This basic patterns are developed as representing their native language. At the same time children play with their vocal apparatus and generating internal operating rules language to reach the adult phonology. The procurement process culminates around the 7 years of age, although most of the system is acquired at the age of 5 years. The single phonemes are acquired in the following order: nasal, occlusive, fricative, liquid and trill (Serra, 1979). The diphone liquid consonants are formed with a later presentation. The acquisition of vowel diphones are falling after rising.